Pierre Kropotkin or the other law of the jungle

Special issue “Thinking about ecology”

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A widespread belief is that relationships between living beings are essentially competitive. Competition for food, competition for reproduction, competition for survival. May the best win ! Nature would be a permanent war, governed by the “law of the jungle”: the law of the strongest, which, applied to societies, would result in the elimination of the so-called “weak”, and which is sometimes called also, unjustly, “social Darwinism”. In reality, Darwin had also insisted on associations between organisms as a factor of survival: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, symbiosis. But the Victorian era was looking for scientific bases for capitalism, and this aspect was deliberately overlooked.

For years, he went on expeditions across the Eurasian continent to observe this famous natural selection described by

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