There are serious conflicts between very important countries that exercise geopolitical leadership and that privilege competition and threats, but not cooperation. With the Covid-19 pandemic, both the United States and China forgot about the rest of the world. We know that until everyone is vaccinated, the pandemic will continue.
To reverse climate change, countries have not fulfilled the commitments made at the Paris Summit, which makes more natural disasters and the loss of biodiversity foreseeable. China is responsible for 30% of Greenhouse Gas emissions, the United States for 13% and India for 7%. Total, 50% of the damage.
The abrupt exit of the United States from Afghanistan left this country undone, without the promised liberal democracy and market economy. Instead instability. It was a one-sided, chaotic and dangerous retreat. To compensate for this experience, President Biden offered at the 76th UN General Assembly to end relentless wars and privilege diplomacy.
But immediately afterwards, the United States, England and Australia, behind the back of the European bloc, made a military agreement called AUKUS to strengthen their power in the Pacific by manufacturing nuclear submarines. In doing so, they position themselves to face the threat from China, which considers the South China Sea area as its own. There, conflicts have arisen with Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines and India. The United States tries to keep those international waters free from Chinese control. The AUKOS agreement signifies a geostrategic turnaround and the possibility of a dangerous escalation of military conflict.
Another confrontation between China and the United States is its interest in joining the Comprehensive Trans-Pacific Partnership Treaty, a regional pact that President Obama made to isolate China. Now without Obama and without Trump, China wants to be part of that treaty.
The rivalry between the United States and China is signifying a break in the rules that were established 70 years ago, which raises the revitalization of multilateralism.
There are many global problems that could be solved with an international approach in favor of peace through cooperation.
The UN conducted a consultation last year with more than 1 million people on the state of the world situation and its leadership. Most people want more international cooperation and rules-based multilateralism.
The following problems require sensible solutions: 1) the covid pandemic and vaccination, 2) the climate change crisis and the persistent loss of biodiversity, 3) the threat of new wars, 4) inequality and poverty, 5) the terrorism, 6) criminal networks, 7) migration, 8) large-scale cyberattacks.
The change in the institutional structure of multilateralism will have to focus on solving problems that transcend borders.
The great limitation to international relations within a multilateral context is that the two dominant powers, the United States and China, are focused on the pride of power. Neither the United States corrected its deficiencies after the fall of the Soviet Union, concentrating only on its arrogance of considering itself the sole winner, nor has China opened the door for political parties that express pluralism to enter.
The European Union, characterized by pragmatism and balance, with an experience of the Welfare State, is a champion of world diplomacy because it respects global rules, negotiates and keeps promises. For its military defense it has NATO and is considering the creation of a rapid reaction force for emergencies. Sabina Weyan defines the role of the European Union as follows: “Work with others where we can and work autonomously where we must.”
Economy and Society
Writer and graduate in economics, graduated from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. From 1984 to 1990 he was Mexico’s ambassador to the Kingdom of Denmark, where he was awarded the Dannebrog order.